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Paath Yojana 2024: What do you understand by lesson planning? Different approaches to lesson planning

Paath Yojana: Lesson plans are seen to be crucial for fortifying the system of the complete teaching process. For the teacher to begin his teaching duties in the classroom with confidence, the lesson plan is prepared even before the teacher arrives. By doing this, the instructor has prior knowledge of potential challenges about his subject and prepares himself to address them. By responding to the questions posed by the pupils during the lesson, he can so satiate their curiosity. It becomes crucial for us to comprehend what lesson planning entails if it is of such importance to teachers.

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Meaning of Paath Yojana

A lesson plan is a condensed version of a subject that a teacher teaches in a set amount of time. Lesson planning, then, is a thorough outline of everything the instructor has to accomplish in a specific amount of time. This time frame could be roughly divided across several institutions and schools. As a result, each instructor should design his lesson plan taking into account the length of the school day.

While different academics have provided varied definitions of lesson planning, it is universally acknowledged that the preparation of “lesson planning” involves the instructor organizing a variety of teaching-related activities.

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According to Davis

Nothing impedes a teacher’s growth more than inadequate preparation for the classroom, so a teacher should be well-prepared before entering the room.

according to binning and binning

Determining methods and procedures, choosing course content, organizing it chronologically, and setting objectives are all part of daily lesson planning.

A lesson plan is an outline of the key concepts of a lesson, placed in the order that the instructor would give them to the students, according to the International Dictionary of Education.

Different approaches to lesson planning

Educationists have stressed various methods for creating lesson plans at different points in time, all while keeping in mind their core values and views. But which method is best for creating a lesson plan? There was nothing to be found out about this. The methods listed below can be used to create a lesson plan:

  • Herbartian Five Steps Approach,
  • Morrison’s or Unit Approach,
  • Bloom’s or Evaluation Approach,
  • RCM approach

Herbart’s five-step approach

Herbert, a well-known philosopher and educationist from Germany, broke down the lesson plan into five sections. These five posts serve as the foundation for creating the lesson plan. This is the method that Herbart first proposed. As a result, most teacher preparation programs design their lessons using this method.

The foundation of Herbart’s approach is the notion that knowledge is continuously acquired by a character through external means. The phrase “accrued expertise idea” describes this. According to this theory, new knowledge must be connected to existing thinking to be transmitted and become more enduring.

The lesson plan’s five main points, as defined by Mr. Herbert, will be applied during teacher preparation:
  • Statement of Aim
  • Presentation
  • Explanation
  • Generalization
  • Application
Presentation –
  1.  Herbart also refers to this phrase as an opening or a preamble. The lesson’s beginning is where this post’s objective statement begins. This post contains several questions meant to test students’ prior knowledge to pique their curiosity about learning new information. In other words, by looking at the students’ past experiences, this post helps them become more open to accepting new information. As a result, the teacher announces the lesson plan for that day in the objective statement, which follows the introduction. In this fashion, the lesson’s subsequent verses start, and the pupils are psychologically ready to study the next chapter or lesson.
  • ‘Comparison and Association’ is another name for this phrase from Herbert’s approach. To help the students understand the material being covered, this post makes connections between the events, facts, experiments, etc. that have been presented. To help the pupils understand the new information, the teacher thus builds the relationships between one subject and another, as well as between one occurrence or fact in one subject and another fact or incident in the same subject.
  • Explanation- ‘Comparison and Association’ is another name for this phrase from Herbert’s approach. To help the students grasp the material being taught, links are built in this post between the facts, events, experiments, etc. that have been taught. To help the pupils understand the new information, the teacher thus builds the relationships between one subject and another, as well as between one occurrence or fact in one subject and another fact or incident in the same subject.
Generalization –
  • Generalization is the fourth Herbart method lesson planning phase. Following this verse’s explanation, a conclusion needs to be made. These results lead to the formulation of certain broad guidelines. We refer to this procedure as normalization. To improve the effectiveness of learning, students should be the ones doing the generalization instead of the teacher. The instructor’s role should be limited to assisting the pupils’ generalization process.
  • In Herbart’s method, this final lesson plan phase is crucial. Students get the chance to permanently apply the knowledge they have learned in this post. Only by using what has been learned in novel contexts can knowledge become permanent. Therefore, it is crucial to give students the tools they need to apply the knowledge they have learned to make sense of it and demonstrate that the rules are true. It is easy to utilize this term in science, math, and other areas.
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Outline of lesson planning in Herbart’s approach

The five positions of Herbart’s approach listed above serve as the foundation for the lesson plan’s layout that follows. The student teacher creates a lesson plan based on this template.

  1. Class, Subject, and Topic: According to the Herbart method, the lesson plan’s outline’s first section identifies the subject’s subtopic. The next step is to decide on the teaching level, class, date, and other specifics.
  2. General Objectives – Every subject is taught with a general objective in mind. The success of teaching is determined by the attainment of these goals. After considering the theme and subtopic, these broad goals are decided. Language, science, and social studies instruction all have different overarching objectives. Age and class level should be taken into consideration when setting general objectives. A special contribution to reaching these goals is made by lesson planning.
  3. Specific Objectives – Particular goals are closely connected to the lesson that will be presented. The particular goals are different for every sub-discipline. To recognise these, the instructor needs to be an expert in the field.
  4. Material Aids- The purpose of teaching aids is to increase the efficiency of instruction. There are three phases to the employment of auxiliary materials, which include models, charts, radios, televisions, tape recorders, projectors, etc.
  • at the time of introduction
  • In the middle of the lesson.
  • During repetition.
The selection of supplementary materials should take into account the subject content as well as the class level.
Previous Knowledge-

Herbart argues that prior knowledge serves as the foundation for new knowledge. Establishing a link between the new and existing knowledge is necessary to make the lesson clear, intelligible, and interesting as well as the knowledge methodical and well-organized.


The beginning of the lecture is based on the students’ past knowledge. The introduction provides access to the new text. It is imperative that you prepare these questions very carefully. It is important to ask the opening questions in the correct sequence because they act as a sort of introduction to the lesson that comes next.

Statement of Aim –

 Following the introduction, the instructor should write the lesson’s goal clearly on the board and convey it in straightforward terms. The objective statement should be written in plain, intelligible language.


 The teacher gives the students an overview of the subject matter after stating the goal. When preparing a class, the instructor organizes the material into units that work best for him. These components serve as a methodical means of teaching knowledge to the pupils in the classroom. The instructor advances the course by posing developmental questions to the class during the presentation. If the pupil is unable to provide a coherent response to the developmental questions, the instructor should restate his points to ensure understanding. The instructor should continue to pique the student’s attention throughout the session. This essay also covers comparability and correlation.

Black-Board Summary –

The teacher has no purpose in the teaching process if there is no blackboard. He plays the role of the teacher’s companion. On the whiteboard, the instructor writes the lessons he wants to cover. Asking students to help with the whiteboard summary is a good idea. The blackboard summary should use language appropriate for the class level, which should be clear and succinct. The blackboard’s lettering ought to be visually appealing.


Recapitulating a lesson is just doing it again. In this section, the instructor should provide some review questions following the presentation of each lesson’s term. There are three advantages to this.-

  • Students will be able to recall the lessons and apply the knowledge they have learned.
  • Additionally, the teacher will be aware of the degree to which he succeeded in accomplishing his goal.

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Merits of Herbart Approach

  • The teacher takes a more hands-on role in this method.
  • It applies to all academic areas.
  • It teaches how to apply recently acquired information in unfamiliar situations.
  • It is founded on ideas from psychology.
  • Coordination of all knowledge is feasible using this strategy.
  • This method is directed by the teacher.
  • It has a controlled and methodical form.
  • The pre-acquired knowledge principle serves as its foundation.
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Demerits of Herbart’s approach

  • This method offers less flexibility.
  • This method places more focus just on presentation.
  • Using this method, teaching can only occur at the memory level.
  • Only the cognitive portion of instruction is possible in this.
  • This also restricts the teacher’s independence.
  • It disregards the learning environments and goals of instruction.
  • This approach does not take the kids’ interests or abilities into account.
  • The teaching-learning objectives are not specified in this.

Need and importance of lesson planning

The necessity and significance of lesson planning are as follows:

  • The instructor gets confidence as a result.
  • The instructor forms the routine of working methodically.
  • The teacher’s ability to teach grows.
  • Lesson planning helps to keep the classroom disciplined.
  • Lesson plans help students retain the subject better because they are based on prior knowledge.
  • Lesson planning makes it easy to set broad objectives for teaching any subject.
  • Lesson planning is one way to employ the reinforcement strategy.
  • Lesson planning is a useful tool for teaching systematic knowledge.
  • Lesson planning helps to build the relationship between teaching and learning.
  • It is possible to learn about class difficulties through lesson planning.
  • Lesson plans are useful for teaching comprehensively.
  • Lesson plans help teachers remember things better.
  • During teacher preparation, lesson planning is crucial to developing an agenda for classroom activities.
  • Instruction

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Q: What is most important in a lesson plan?

Ans: When planning your session, make sure that each activity has adequate time and that the necessary materials are available, such as for active group work or hands-on activities. Planning several question formats and activities for various groups may be necessary when creating materials for larger classes.

Q: Who is the father of lesson planning?

Ans: Herbert claims that these phrases help students learn new information quickly and effectively. Thus, it can be said that J.F. Herbert invented the five-step lesson planning method.

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